Hallmark Research Institute
  Providing Education and Resources for a Better Understanding and Recognition of Precious Metal Hallmarks Worldwide

Archived Hallmark Example Page

The following are hallmarks that were featured on the home page as they were posted.
These marks and many more are listed in "World Hallmarks - Vol.I - Europe" available here. Some are from the yet to be released Vol.II.


Egyptian Silver Hallmark





     1                2               3       


Egypt has been hallmarking precious metals since 1916. Their hallmark methodology is sequential and comprised of 3 components with a prescribed arrangement, generally aligned as in the example. To better understand each component of the Egyptian hallmark the following is provided...

  1. This is the fineness hallmark that identifies the purity of precious metal, in Arabic, as tested by the Egyptian Assay Office. The Arabic chracters here are a 9 and 0 ( '90' representing 90% or 900/1000). Above the fineness is the abriviation, in Arabic, for the Cairo Assay Office where the item was hallmarked.
  2. The center hallmark shows the lotus flower, which Egypt uses as their country hallmark for silver from 1946 to date. Prior to the lotus, a cat was used from 1916-1945. (If gold this hallmark's core image would be the Larus Gull, a stork like image)
  3. The final mark on the right is the year-date hallmark. Each year a new letter in the Arabic alphabet is assigned to represent that year. The letter indicates when these hallmark was struck on the item.  In this example the letter is the Arabic letter for 'h' used from 1962-1964.

    Look for more information in the HRI's publication
    World Hallmarks - Vol II - Asia, Middle East, Africa
    Volume II has the most complete date letter mark
    chart found anywhere.


Czechoslovakia Silver Hallmark


The triangular shape of this hallmark is unique and identifiable for the region. The 'cross over three hills' design within the triangle was used from 1929-1941 in the area know at that time as Czechoslovakia.  The number 4 indicates the item is constructed of the fourth silver standard of this period - 835 silver. (For more information, consult page 70 of World Hallmarks - Vol. I - Europe, 2nd edition)

French Gold & Platinum Hallmark


The eagle's head hallmark is commonly seen on French made items that are constructed of a minimum 18k/750 gold. The dog's head mark is the French hallmark for 950 platinum.  These two together indicate that both metals are present in this item. The order and orientation of the two hallmarks can provide more specifics on metal content ratios for the item, as well. (For more information, consult page 115 of World Hallmarks - Vol. I - Europe, 2nd edition, for all the combinations and their meanings.)


Poland Silver Hallmark


This silver hallmark was used in Poland from 1920 to 1931. The number 3 indicates the item is made of the third silver standard at the time - 800 silver. The W on the right side of the female's left facing profile indicates the item was hallmarked in the Warsaw Assay Office. The barrel shape outline tells us that the item marked weighed more than 10 grams. (For more information, consult page 199 of World Hallmarks - Vol. I - Europe 2nd Edition)

Czech and Slovak Republic Hallmark

Lisbon Hallmark



This rooster facing left  is an example of a more recent hallmark from the Czech and Slovak Republic indicating a small domestic gold  article of the 3rd standard - 750  gold fineness. This hallmark one of  the few Czech and Slovakian hallmarks that has been in use since 1921 that  has remained unchanged. (For more information, consult page 76 & 279 of World Hallmarks - Vol. I - Europe, 2nd Edition)

Russian Hallmark

Russian Mark

This is an example of the inclusive design of the Soviet Russian hallmark. Contained within this rectangular (shove shape) frame shape outlined hallmark exhibits 1) a Soviet star with hammer and sickle within the star frame, 2) the 583 is the Russian gold standard for 14k gold, 3) a Cryillic symbol to the left of the star represents the assay office where the item was marked.
The second hallmark on the left is the maker's mark Within this pointed reserve is a date mark as well. Do you know what is wrong with this mark and why?  Email us, and let us what you think! (For more information, consult page 258 of World Hallmarks - Vol. I - Europe, 2nd Edition)

Austrian Hallmark

Austrian Mark

This single hallmark is inclusive in style and that it reveals that the item was imported to Austria after 1965 (the cocker spaniel image was used after 1965), the item was assayed in Salzberg (the S stands for the Salzberg Assay Office) and is of 14k gold (the number 4 stands for the fourth stand for gold in Austria which is 14k/585). (For more information, consult page 33 of World Hallmarks - Vol. I - Europe, 2nd Edition)

French Hallmark

French Import Mark



This French owl hallmark is located on the tongue of a bracelet's push catch. It was used begining from 1893 and continues to be used. This oval hallmark represents a gold item that is imported from a country whose standards does not comply to French Customs fineness standards. Often there is a mark on the chest of the owl that designates the assay office that marked the item upon import. A common example is the number 75 that represents Paris. (For more information, consult page 109 of World Hallmarks - Vol. I - Europe, 2nd Edition)

Portugal Silver Hallmark

Lisbon Hallmark



This sitting boar is a hallmark from Portugal.  The shape outline of this hallmark indicates it was assayed in Lisbon between the years of 1886-1938. The II indicates the second standard of silver- 833/1000. This design of hallmark was generally used  on large silver objects. (For more information, consult page 211 & 215 of World Hallmarks - Vol. I - Europe, 2nd Edition)

French Gold Hallmark


As a left facing ram's head, this French hallmark was used from August  16, 1819 to May 9, 1938. Finding this mark indicates the item has  tested with limited warranty by touchstone to be a minimum of 750/18kt gold. Origin of the  mark is Paris, France.   

French Silver Hallmark




This left facing head of Mercury with the octagonal outline and scalloped corners was marked on large French items exported out of France between 1840 and 1879.  It represents a metal content of either 750 gold or 950 silver, minimum. (For more information, consult page 112 of World Hallmarks - Vol. I - Europe, 2nd Edition)


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Permission to use is allowed provided the image is accompanied with
proper credit given to the Hallmark Research Institute.

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