Hallmark Research Institute
 Dedicated to education and understanding in precious metal hallmarks around the world

Archived Hallmark Example Page

The following are hallmarks that were featured on the home page as they were posted.
These marks and many more are listed in "World Hallmarks - Vol.I - Europe" available here. Some are from the yet to be released Vol.II.


Egyptian Silver Hallmark






 A               B              C         


HRI is currently working on our next World Hallmarks book - Vol. II which will cover much of the world of hallmarks outside of Europe (Vol.I covers Europe). In our research, one of the countries we will be covering is Egypt. On the left is an example of their hallmarking style.
Egypt has been hallmarking precious metals since 1916. Their hallmark methodology is comprised of 3 marks like this example.

A) This shows the fineness in Arabic characters for 90 (representing 90% or 900/1000). Above the fineness is the Arabic characters for the Cairo Assay Office where the item was hallmarked.
B) This center hallmark shows a lotus flower, which Egypt uses as their mark for silver to date. Prior to that they used a cat from 1916-1945. (Gold is the Ibis bird)
C) The final hallmark on the right is the date letter. This Arabic character is the date letter used from 1962-1964.

HRI is currently seeking more Egyptian hallmark images to finish a visual chart of date letters. If you have images you can share, email them to us through our questions page.

Czechoslovakia Silver Hallmark




The triangular shape of this hallmark is unique and identifiable for the region. The 'cross over three hills' design within is from Czechoslovakia and used from 1929-1941.  The number 4 indicates the item is constructed of the fourth silver standard of this period - 835 silver. (For more information, consult page 70 of World Hallmarks - Vol. I - Europe)

French Gold & Platinum Hallmark


The eagle's head hallmark is commonly seen on French made items that are constructed of a minimum 18k/750 gold. The dog's head mark is the French hallmark for 950 platinum.  These two together indicate that both metals are present in this item. The order and orientation of the two hallmarks can provide more specifics on metal content ratios for the item as well. (For more information, consult page 115 of World Hallmarks - Vol. I - Europe, for all the combinations and their meanings.)


Poland Silver Hallmark


This silver hallmark is from Poland.  It was used from 1920 to 1931. The number 3 indicates the item is made of the third standard - 800 silver. The W on the right side of the female's left facing profile indicates the item was hallmarked in the Warsaw Assay Office. The barrel shape outline tells us that the item was marked on an item that weighs more than 10 grams.(For more information, consult page 199 of World Hallmarks - Vol. I - Europe)

Czech and Slovak Republic Hallmark

Lisbon Hallmark



This rooster facing left  is an example of a more recent hallmark from the Czech and Slovak Republic indicating a small domestic gold  article of the 3rd standard or 750  gold fineness. This mark one of  the few Czech and Slovakian hallmarks that has been in use since 1921 that  has remained unchanged. (For more information, consult page 76 & 279 of World Hallmarks - Vol. I - Europe)

Russian Hallmark

Russian Mark

This is an example of a Soviet Russian mark that exhibits the    Soviet star with a hammer and sickle. The 583 is the Russian  Standard of 14k gold. The symbol to the left of the star is the assay office. The second hallmark on the left is the maker's mark Within this reserve is the date mark as well. Do you know what is wrong with this mark and why?  Email us, and let us what you think! (For more information, consult page 258 of World Hallmarks - Vol. I - Europe)

Austrian Hallmark

Austrian Mark

This single hallmark is inclusive in that it reveals that the item was imported to Austria after 1965 (the cocker spaniel image was used after 1965), the item was assayed in Salzberg (the S stands for the Salzberg Assay Office) and is of 14k gold (the number 4 stands for the fourth stand for gold in Austria which is 14k/585). (For more information, consult page 33 of World Hallmarks - Vol. I - Europe)

French Hallmark

French Import Mark



This OWL mark is on the push catch tongue of a bracelet. It is French begriming in 1893 and represents a gold item imported from a country whose standards does not comply to French Customs standards. Often there is a mark on the chest of the owl that designates the assay office that marked the item upon import. A common example is the number 75 that represents Paris.(For more information, consult page 109 of World Hallmarks - Vol. I - Europe)

Portugal Silver Hallmark

Lisbon Hallmark




This sitting Boar is a mark from Portugal.  The shape outline of this hallmark indicates it was assayed in Lisbon between the years of 1886-1938. The II indicates the second standard of silver- 833/1000. This  style of hallmark was generally used  on large silver objects. (For more information, consult page 211 & 215 of World Hallmarks - Vol. I - Europe)

French Gold Hallmark




As a left facing RAM's HEAD, this  hallmark was used from August  16, 1819 to May 9, 1938. Finding this mark indicates the item has  tested with limited warranty by touchstone to be a minimum of 750/18kt gold. Origin of the  mark is Paris, France.   

French Silver Hallmark




This left facing head of Mercury with the octagonal outline and scalloped corners was used on large French items of 750 gold or 950 silver min., exported out of France between 1840 and 1879. (For more information, consult page 112 of World Hallmarks - Vol. I - Europe)


These hallmark images are copyrighted by HRI ©
Permission to use is allowed provided the image is accompanied with
proper credit given to the Hallmark Research Institute.

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